Keep in mind that the Treaty of Tripoli - adapted under G. Washington's presidency, was basically paying a bribe to the Muslim pirates to leave our merchant ships alone (not take the ships, and press the crews into slavery) - as the new USA had a very weak to non-existent navy - and both Britain and France had withdrawn naval protection of USA merchant ships.
As General William Eaton informed newly appointed Secretary of State John Marshall in 1800, "It is a maxim of the Barbary States, that 'The Christians who would be on good terms with them must fight well or pay well.
However, before anyone in the United States saw the Treaty
, its required payments (bribes), in the form of goods and money, had been made in part.
The treaty was broken in 1801 by the Pasha of Tripoli
over President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to submit to the Pasha's demands for increased payments. (getting greedy?) And with now a stronger USN - and USMC "shores of Tripoli" - went to war to stop the piracy.
Through subsequent battles, Tripoli eventually agreed to terms of peace with the United States. Tobias Lear negotiated a second "Treaty of Peace and Amity" with the Pasha Yusuf on June 4, 1805. To the dismay of many Americans, the new settlement included a ransom of $60,000 paid for the release of prisoners from the USS Philadelphia and several U.S. merchant ships. By 1807, Algiers had gone back to taking U.S. ships and seamen hostage
. (Broke the "treaty" again - Muslims cannot be trusted?). Distracted by the preludes to the War of 1812, the United States was unable to respond to the provocations until 1815, with the Second Barbary War, thereby concluding the encompassing the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War (1800–1815).
And then there is the whole controversy that "Article 11" of the English version is not found in the Arabic version, nor exactly who/how it got there?
A prominent member of Adams' cabinet, Secretary of War James McHenry, protested the language of article 11 before its ratification. He wrote to Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr., September 26, 1800: "The Senate, my good friend, and I said so at the time, ought never to have ratified the treaty alluded to, with the declaration that 'the government of the United States, is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion.' What else is it founded on? This act always appeared to me like trampling upon the cross. I do not recollect that Barlow was even reprimanded for this outrage upon the government and religion."
A second treaty, the Treaty of Peace and Amity signed on July 4, 1805, superseded the 1796 treaty. The 1805 treaty did not contain the phrase "not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion."